Abandoned Baby : Candlestick
pattern. A rare reversal pattern characterized by a gap followed by a Doji, which
is then followed by another gap in the opposite direction. The shadows on the Doji
must completely gap below or above the shadows of the first and third day.
Aggregate : Total amount of exposure a bank has with
a customer for both spot and forward contracts.
Aggressor : A trader dealing on an existing price in
American Option : An option which may be exercised
at any valid business date throughout the life of the option.
Appreciation : The increase in the value of an asset.
Arbitrage : A risk-free type of trading where the same
instrument is bought and sold simultaneously in two different markets in order to
cash in on the difference in these markets.
Around : Used in quoting forward "premium / discount".
Ask : The price at which a currency pair or security
is offered for sale also know as Ask Price or Ask Rate;
Asset : The right to receive from a counterparty an
amount of currency either in respect of a balance sheet asset (e.g. a loan) or at
a specified future date in respect of an unmatched forward or spot deal.
At Best : An instruction given to a dealer to buy or
sell at the best rate that is currently available in the market.
At or Better : An order to deal at a specific rate
At Par Forward Spread : When the forward price is equivalent
to the spot price.
At the Price Stop-Loss Order : A stop-loss order that
must be executed at the requested level regardless of market conditions.
At-the-Money : An option whose strike/exercise price
is equal to or near the current market price of the underlying instrument.
Auction : Sale of an item to the highest bidder. (1)
A method commonly used in exchange control regimes for the allocation of foreign
exchange. (2) A method for allocating government paper, such as US Treasury Bills.
Small investors are given preferential access to the bills. The average issuing
price is then computed on the basis of the competitive bids accepted. In some circumstances
for government auctions it is the yield rather than the price which is bid.
Average Rate Option : A contract where the exercise
price is based on the difference between the strike price and the average spot rate
over the contract period. Sometimes called an "Asian option".
Back Office : The office location, or department, where
the processing of financial transactions takes place.
Back to Back : Transaction where all the obligations
and liabilities in one transaction are mirrored in a second transaction. (2) Transaction
where a loan is made in one currency in one country against a loan in another country
in another currency.
Balance of Payments : A systematic record of the economic
transactions during a given period for a country. (1) The term is often used to
mean either : (i) balance of payments on "current account"; or (ii) the current
account plus certain long term capital movements. (2) The combination of the trade
balance, current balance, capital account and invisible balance, which together
make up the balance of payments total. Prolonged balance of payment deficits tend
to lead to restrictions in capital transfers, and or decline in currency values.
Balance of Trade : The value of exports less imports.
Invisibles are normally excluded, and is otherwise referred to as mercantile or
physical trade. Figures can be quoted on FoB/ FaS , customs cleared, or FoB export.
Band : The range in which a currency is permitted to
move. A system used in the ERM.
Bank Line : Line of credit granted by a bank to a customer,
also known as a " line".
Bank Notes : Bank notes are paper issued by the central
or issuing bank and are legal tender, but are not usually considered to be part
of the FX market. However bank notes can be converted, in some counties, into FX.
Bank notes are normally priced at a premium to the current spot rate for a currency.
Bank Rate : The rate at which a central bank is prepared
to lend money to its domestic banking system.
Barrier Option : A family of path dependent options
whose pay-off pattern and survival to the expiration date depend not only on the
final price of the underlying currency but also on whether or not the underlying
currency breaks a predetermined price level at any time during the life of the option.
See Down and Out call/put, Down and in call/put, Up and out call/put, Up and in
Base Currency : In terms of foreign exchange trading,
currencies are quoted in terms of a currency pair. The first currency in the pair
is the base currency. The base currency is the currency against which exchange rates
are generally quoted in a given country. Examples : USD/JPY, the US Dollar is
the base currency; EUR/USD, the EURO is the base currency.
Base Rate : A term used in the UK for the rate used
by banks to calculate the interest rate to borrowers. Top quality borrowers will
pay a small amount over base.
Basis Convergence : The process whereby the basis tends
towards zero as the contract expiry approaches.
Basis Point : One per cent of one per cent.
Basis Price : The price expressed in terms of yield
maturity or annual rate of return.
Basis Trading : Taking opposite positions in the cash
and futures market with the intention of profiting from favorable movements in the
Basis : The difference between the cash price and futures
Basket : A group of currencies normally used to manage
the exchange rate of a currency. Sometimes referred to as a unit of account.
BEAC : Banque des États de l'Afrique
Centrale (BEAC) or the
Bank of the Central African States
in Cameroon, for the members of the CEMAC which include Cameroon, Central African
Republic, Chad, Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. The Central African
CFA Franc is issued by the BEAC as its currency.
Bear Market : A market in which prices decline sharply
against a background of widespread pessimism (opposite of Bull Market).
Bear : A person who believes that prices will decline.
Bid Price : Bid is the highest price that the seller
is offering for the particular currency at the moment; the difference between the
ask and the bid price is the spread. Together, the two prices constitute a quotation;
the difference between the two is the spread. The bid-ask spread is stated as a
percentage cost of transacting in foreign exchange.
Bid/Ask Spread : The point difference between the bid
and offer (ask) price.
Bid : The price at which an investor can place an order
to buy a currency pair; the quoted price where an investor can sell a currency pair.
This is also known as the 'bid price' and 'bid rate'.
Big Figure : Refers normally to the first three digits
of an exchange rate that dealers treat as understood in quoting. For example a quote
of "30/40" on dollar mark could indicates a price of 1.5530/40BIS : Bank of
Big Figure : The first two or three digits of a foreign
exchange price or rate. Examples : USD/JPY rate of 108.05/10 the big figure
is 108. EUR/USD price of .8325/28 the big figure is .83
Bilateral Clearing : A system used where foreign currency
is limited. Payments are usually routed through the central banks, and sometimes
require that the trade balance is equaled every year.
Binary Options : A binary "call" (or "step up") is
like a standard European call option except that the pay off at expiry is fixed
at one unit of the counter currency, if the call expires in the money.
Black-Scholes Model : An option pricing formula initially
derived by Fisher Black and Myron Scholes for securities options and later refined
by Black for options on futures. It is widely used in the currency markets.
Booked : The recording of a transaction outside the
country where the transaction is itself negotiated.
Boris : Slang for Russian trading.
Break Even Point : The price of a financial instrument
at which the option buyer recovers the premium, meaning that he makes neither a
loss nor a gain. In the case of a call option, the break even point is the exercise
price plus the premium.
Break Out : In the options market, undoing a conversion
or a reversal to restore the option buyer's original position.
Bretton Woods : The site of the conference which in
1944 led to the establishment of the post war foreign exchange system that remained
intact until the early 1970s. The conference resulted in the formation of the IMF.
The system fixed currencies in a fixed exchange rate system with 1% fluctuations
of the currency to gold or the dollar.
Broker : An agent, who executes orders to buy and sell
currencies and related instruments either for a commission or on a spread. Brokers
are agents working on commission and not principals or agents acting on their own
account. In the foreign exchange market brokers tend to act as intermediaries between
banks bringing buyers and sellers together for a commission paid by the initiator
or by both parties. There are four or five major global brokers operating through
subsidiaries affiliates and partners in many countries.
Brokerage : Commission charged by a broker.
BUBA : Bundesbank, the reserve bank of Germany.
Bull Market : A market characterized by rising prices.
Bull : A person who believes that prices will rise.
Bulldogs : Sterling bonds issued in the UK by foreign
Bundesbank : Central Bank of Germany.
Buy Limit Order : An order to execute a transaction
at a specified price (the limit) or lower.
Buy Side : The side of Wall Street comprising the investing
institutions such as mutual funds, pension funds and insurance firms that tend to
buy large portions of securities for money-management purposes. The buy side is
the opposite of the sell-side entities, which provide recommendations for upgrades,
downgrades, target prices and opinions to the public market. Together, the buy side
and sell side make up both sides of Wall Street.
Buy On Margin : The process of buying a currency pair
where a client pays cash for part of the overall value of the position. The word
margin refers to the portion the investor puts up rather than the portion that is
Cable Transfer : Telegraphic transfer of funds from
one centre to another. Now synonymous with inter bank electronic fund transfer.
Cable : A term used in the foreign exchange market
for the US Dollar/British Pound rate.
Call : n option that gives the holder the right to
buy the underlying instrument at a specified price during a fixed period.
Call Option : A call option confers the right but not
the obligation to buy stock, shares or futures at a specified price.
Candlestick Chart : A chart that displays the daily
trading price range (open, high, low and close).
Capital Account : Juxtaposition of the long and short
term capital imports and exports of a country.
Carry (Interest-Rate Carry) : The income or cost associated
with keeping a foreign exchange position overnight. This is derived when the currency
pairs in the position have different interest rates for the same period of time.
Carry-Over Charge : A finance charge associated with
the storing of commodities (or foreign exchange contracts) from one delivery date
Cash : Normally refers to an exchange transaction contracted
for settlement on the day the deal is struck. This term is mainly used in the North
American markets and those countries which rely for foreign exchange services on
these markets because of time zone preference i.e. Latin America. In Europe and
Asia, cash transactions are often referred to as value same day deals.
Cash and Carry : The buying of an asset today and selling
a future contract on the asset. A reverse cash and carry is possible by selling
an asset and buying a future.
Cash Settlement : A procedure for settling futures
contract where the cash difference between the future and the market price is paid
instead of physical delivery.
CBOE : Chicago Board Options Exchange.
CBOT or CBT : Chicago Board of Trade.
CD : Certificate of Deposit.
Central Bank : A central bank provides financial and
banking services for a country's government and commercial banks. It implements
the government's monetary policy, as well, by changing interest rates.
Central Rate : Exchange rates against the ECU adopted
for each currency within the EMS.Currencies have limited movement from the central
rate according to the relevant band.
Certificate of Deposit (CD) : A negotiable certificate
in bearer form issued by a commercial bank as evidence of a deposit with that bank
which states the maturity value, maturity rate and interest rate payable. CDs vary
in size with maturities ranging from a few weeks to several years. CDs may normally
be redeemed before maturity only by sale on the secondary market but may also be
redeemed back to issuing bank through payment of a penalty.
CFD : See
Contract for Difference.
CFP : The Comptoirs Français du Pacifique
(CFP) consists of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna. The CFP
Franc is used by the French overseas collective as its currency.
CFTC : The Commodity Futures Trading Commission, the
US Federal regulatory agency for futures traded on commodity markets, including
CHAPS : Clearing House Automated Payment System.
Chartist : An individual who studies graphs and charts
of historic data to find trends and predict trend reversals which include the observance
of certain patterns and characteristics of the charts to derive resistance levels,
head and shoulders patterns, and double bottom or double top patterns which are
thought to indicate trend reversals.
CHIPS : The New York clearing house clearing system.
(Clearing House Interbank Payment System). Most Euro transactions are cleared and
settled through this system.
CIBOR : Copenhagen Interbank Rate, the rate at which
the banks lend the Danish Krone on an unsecured basis. The rate is calculated daily
by the Danmarks Nationalbank (the Danish Central Bank), based on rules set out by
the Danish Banker's Association.
Closing a Position : The process of selling or buying
a foreign exchange position resulting in the liquidation (squaring up) of the position.
Closing Market Rate : The rate at which a position
can be closed based on the market price at end of the day.
Closing Purchase Transaction : The purchase of an option
identical to one already sold to liquidate a position.
CME : Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
Coincident Indicator : An economic indicator that generally
moves in line with the general business cycle such as industrial production.
Comex : Commodity Exchange of New York.
Commission : The fee that a broker may charge clients
for dealing on their behalf.
Compound Option : An option on an option, the dates
and price of such option being fixed.
Confirmation : A memorandum to the other party describing
all the relevant details of the transaction.
Contract : An agreement to buy or sell a specified
amount of a particular currency or option for a specified month in the future (See
Contract Expiration Date : The date on which a currency
must be delivered to fulfill the terms of the contract. For options, the last day
on which the option holder can exercise his right to buy or sell the underlying
instrument or currency.
Contract for Difference : A contract
between two parties, typically described as buyer and seller,
stipulating that the buyer will pay to the seller the difference between the current
value of an asset and its value at contract time. If the difference is negative,
then the seller pays instead to the buyer. In effect CFDs are financial derivatives
that allow investors to take advantage of prices moving up (long positions)
or prices moving down (short positions) on underlying financial instruments
and are often used to speculate on those markets.
Contract Month : The month in which a futures contract
matures or becomes deliverable if not liquidated or traded out before the date specified.
Correspondent Bank : The foreign banks representative
who regularly performs services for a bank which has no branch in the relevant centre,
e.g. to facilitate the transfer of funds. In the US this often occurs domestically
due to inter state banking restrictions.
Cost of Carry : The interest rate parity, where the
forward price is determined by the cost of borrowing money in order to hold the
Cost of Living Index : Broadly equivalent to Retail
Price Index or Consumer price.
Counterpart : A participant in a financial transaction.
Counterparty Risks : Foreign Currency Inter-bank Exchange
(FOREX) instruments are Positions (Buys and/or Sell) between the Client and its
Counterparty and, unlike exchange-traded foreign exchange instruments which are,
in effect, guaranteed by a clearing organization affiliated with the exchange on
which the instruments are traded, are not guaranteed by a clearing organization.
Thus, when the Customer purchases an OTC foreign exchange instrument, it relies
on the Counterparty from which it has purchased the instrument to fulfill the contract.
Failure of a Counterparty to fulfill a Position could result in losses of any prior
payment made pursuant to the Positions as well as the loss of the expected benefit
of the transaction.
Country Risk : Factors that affect currency trading
unique to the specific country include political, regulatory, legal and holiday
Coupon : (1) On bearer stocks, the detachable part
of the hide behind nominee status. Certificate exchangeable for dividends. (2) Denotes
the rate of interest on a fixed interest security.
Coupon Value : The annual rate of interest of a bond.
Cover : (1) To take out a forward foreign exchange
contract. (2) To close out a short position by buying currency or securities which
have been sold.
Covered Interest Rate Arbitrage : An arbitrage approach
which consists of borrowing currency A, exchanging it for currency B, investing
currency B for the duration of the loan, and, after taking off the forward cover
on maturity, showing a profit on the entire set of deals. It is based on the theorem
of interest rate parity (one of the key theoretical economic relationships) which
says that the return on a hedged foreign investment will just equal the domestic
interest rate on investments of identical risk. When the covered interest rate differential
between the two money markets is zero, there is no arbitrage incentive to move funds
from one market to another.
CPI : Consumer Price Index. Monthly measure of the
change in the prices of a defined basket of consumer goods including food, clothing,
and transport. Countries vary in their approach to rents and mortgages.
CPSS : Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems.
Crawling Peg (Adjustable Peg) : An exchange rate system
where a country's exchange rate is "pegged" (i.e. fixed) in relation to another
currency. The official rate may be changed from time to time.
Credit Risk : The risk that a debtor will not repay;
more specifically the risk that the counterparty does not have the currency promised
to be delivered.
Cross Deal : A foreign exchange deal entered into involving
two currencies, neither of which is the base currency.
Cross Hedge : A technique using financial futures to
hedge different but related cash instruments based on the view that the price movements
between the instruments move in concert.
Cross Rate : An exchange rate between two currencies,
usually constructed from the individual exchange rates of the two currencies, as
most currencies are quoted against the dollar.
Cross-Rate : The exchange rate between 2 currencies
where neither of the currencies are USD.
Cross-Trade : A cross-trade transaction is a transaction
where either the buy broker and the sell broker are the same, or the buy broker
and the sell broker belong to the same firm.
Currency : The type of money that a country uses. It
can be traded for other currencies on the foreign exchange market, so each currency
has a value relative to another.
Currency Basket : Various weightings of other currencies
grouped together in relation to a basket currency (e.g. ECU or SDR). Sometimes used
by currencies to fix their rate often on a trade weighted basket.
Currency Options : Over-the-counter
contracts that give the right or the obligation—depending upon if the reporter is
the purchaser or the writer—to buy or sell a currency with another currency at a
specified exchange rate during a specified time period. This category also includes
exotic foreign exchange options such as average rate options and barrier options.
Currency Pair : The two currencies that make up a foreign
exchange rate. IE : USD/YEN.
Currency Risk : The possibility of an unfavorable change
in exchange rates.
Currency : Money issued by a government.
Current Account : The net balance of a country's international
payment arising from exports and imports together with unilateral transfers such
as aid and migrant remittances. It excludes capital flows.
Current Balance : The value of all exports (goods plus
services) less all imports of a country over a specific period of time, equal to
the sum of trade and invisible balances plus net receipt of interest, profits and
dividends from abroad.
Cycle : The set of expiration dates applicable to different
classes of option
Dark Cloud Cover : Candlestick pattern. A bearish reversal
pattern that continues the uptrend with a long white body. The next day opens at
a new high then closes below the midpoint of the body of the first day.
Day Order : An order that if not executed on the specific
day is automatically canceled.
Day Trader : A trader who buys and sells on the basis
of small short-term price movements.
Day Trading : A Day Trading deal is a currency exchange
deal which renews automatically every night at 22 :00 (GMT time) starting the
day the deal was made and until it ends. The deal ends in one of the following events
: 1.Termination initiated by you. 2.The day trading rate has reached the Stop-Loss
or Take Profit rate you predefined. 3.The deal end date. As long as the deal is
open, it is charged a renewal fee every night at 22 :00 (GMT time).
Day Trading : Refers to a style or type of trading
where trade positions are opened and closed during the same day.
Deal Date : The date on which a transaction is agreed
Deal Ticket : The primary method of recording the basic
information relating to a transaction.
Dealer : An individual or firm acting as a principal,
rather than as an agent, in the purchase and /or sale of securities. Dealers trade
for their own account and risk in contrast to the brokers who trade only on behalf
of their clients.
Declaration Date : The latest day or time by which
the buyer of an option must intimate to the seller his willingness or unwillingness
to exercise the option.
Deficit : Shortfall in the balance of trade, balance
of payments, or government budgets.
Delivery : The settlement of a transaction by receipt
or tender of a financial instrument or currency.
Delivery Date : The date of maturity of the contract,
when the final settlement of transaction is made by exchanging the currencies. This
date is more commonly known as the value date.
Delivery Risk : A term to describe when a counterparty
will not be able to complete his side of the deal. This risk is very high in case
of over the counter transactions where there is no exchange which can stand as a
guarantee to the trade between the two parties to the contract.
Delta : The ratio comparing the change in the price
of the underlying asset to the corresponding change in the price of a derivative.
Also referred as the "hedge ratio".
Delta Hedging : A method used by option writers to
hedge risk exposure of written options by purchase or sale of the underlying instrument
in proportion to the delta.
Delta Spread : A ratio spread of options established
as a neutral position by using the deltas of the options concerned to determine
the hedge ratio.
Depo : Deposit
Depreciation : A fall in the value of a currency due
to market forces.
Derivatives : A broad term relating to risk management
instruments such as futures, options, swaps, etc. The contract value moves in relation
to the underlying instrument or currency. The issue of derivatives and their control
following large losses by banks and corporates has been subject of much debate.
Desk : Term referring to a group dealing with a specific
currency or currencies.
Details : All the information required to finalize
a foreign exchange transaction, i.e. name, rate, dates, and point of delivery.
Devaluation : Deliberate downward adjustment of a currency
against its fixed parities or bands which is normally accompanied by formal announcement.
Direct Quotation : Quoting in fixed units of foreign
currency against variable amounts of the domestic currency.
Discount : Less than the spot price. For example, forward
Discount Rate : The rate at which a bill is discounted.
Specifically it refers to the rate at which a central bank is prepared to discount
certain bills for financial institutions as a means of easing their liquidity, and
is more accurately referred to as the official discount rate
Discretionary Account : An account in which the customer
permits a trading institution to act on the customer's behalf in buying and selling
currency pairs. The institution has discretion as to the choice of currency pairs,
prices, and timing-subject to any limitations specified in the agreement.
Doji : Candlestick pattern. Doji form when a candle’s
open and close are virtually equal. The length of the upper and lower shadows can
vary, and the resulting candlestick looks like, either, a cross, inverted cross,
or plus sign. Doji convey a sense of indecision or tug-of-war between buyers and
sellers. Prices move above and below the opening level during the session, but close
at or near the opening level.
Domestic Rates : The interest rates applicable to deposits
domiciled in the country of origin. Value and values may vary from Eurodeposits
due to taxation and varying market practices.
Downside Tasuki Gap : Candlestick pattern. A continuation
pattern with a long, black body followed by another black body that has gapped below
the first one. The third day is white and opens within the body of the second day,
then closes in the gap between the first two days, but does not close the gap.
Dragonfly Doji : Candlestick pattern. A Doji where
the open and close price are at the high of the day. Like other Doji days, this
one normally appears at market turning points.
Economic Exposure : Reflects the impact of foreign
exchange changes on the future competitive position of a company in the sense of
the impact it can have on the future cash flows of the company.
Economic Indicator : A statistic which indicates current
economic growth rates and trends such as retail sales and employment.
ECU - European Currency Unit : A basket of the member
currencies. As a composite unit, the ECU consists of all the European Community
currencies, which are individually weighted. It was created by the European Monetary
System with the eventual goal of replacing the individual European member currencies.
Effective Exchange Rate : An attempt to summarize the
effects on a country's trade balance of its currency's changes against other currencies.
EFT : Electronic Fund Transfer.
Either Way Market : In the Euro Interbank deposit market
where both bid and offer rates for a particular period are the same.
EMS : European Monetary System.
EMU : European Monetary Union.
EOE : European Options Exchange.
Epsilon : The change in the price of an option associated
with a 1% change in implied volatility (technically the first derivative of the
option price with respect to volatility). Also referred to as eta, vega, omega and
ERM : Exchange Rate Mechanism.
Euro Clear : A computerized settlement and depository
system for safe custody, delivery of, and payment for Eurobonds.
Euro : The common currency adopted by eleven European
nations(Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands,
Italy, Spain and Portugal) on January 1, 1999.
European Central Bank (ECB) : The Central Bank for
the new European Monetary Union.
European Union : The group formerly known as the European
Exchange Rate Risk : The potential loss that could
be incurred from an adverse movement in exchange rates.
Execution : The Process of completing an order or deal.
Exercise Price (Strike Price) : The price at which
an option can be exercised.
Exotic : A less broadly traded currency.
Expiration Date : (1) Options - the last date
after which the option can no longer be exercised.(2) Bonds - the date on which
a bond matures.
Expiration Month : The month in which an option expires.
Expiry Date : The last date on which an option can
be bought or sold.
Exposure : The total amount of money loaned to a borrower
or country. Banks set rules to prevent overexposure to any single borrower. In trading
operations, it is the potential for running a profit or loss from fluctuations in
Fast Market : Rapid movement in a market caused by
strong interest by buyers and/or sellers. In such circumstances price levels may
be omitted and bid and offer quotations may occur too rapidly to be fully reported.
FCM : See
Futures Commission Merchant.
Fed : The United States Federal Reserve. Federal Deposit
Insurance Corporation Membership is compulsory for Federal Reserve members. The
corporation had deep involvement in the Savings and Loans crisis of the late 80s.
Fed Fund Rate : The interest rate on Fed funds. This
is a closely watched short term interest rate as it signals the Feds view as to
the state of the money supply.
Fed Funds : Cash balances held by banks with their
local Federal Reserve Bank. The normal transaction with these funds is an inter
bank sale of a Fed fund deposit for one business day. Straight deals are where the
funds are traded overnight on a unsecured basis.
FEDAI : Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India
is an association of all dealers in foreign exchange which sets the ground rules
for fixation of commissions and other charges and also determines the rules and
regulations relating to day-to-day transactions in foreign exchange in India.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) : The
regulatory agency responsible for administering bank depository insurance in the
Federal National Mortgage Association : A privately
owned but US government sponsored corporation that trades in residential mortgages.
Its activities are funded by the sale of instruments commonly known as Fannie Maes.
Federal Reserve (Fed) : The Central Bank of the United
Federal Reserve Board : The board of the Federal Reserve
System, appointed by the US President for 14 year terms, one of whom is appointed
for four years as chairman.
Federal Reserve System : The central banking system
of the US comprising 12 Federal Reserve Banks controlling 12 districts under the
Federal Reserve Board. Membership of the Fed is compulsory for banks chartered by
the Comptroller of Currency and optional for state chartered banks.
Fibonacci Retracement : A tool used in technical analysis
which plots the Fibonacci ratios on a graph which displays a stock's price over
time. The key Fibonacci ratios are 23.6%, 38.2%, 61.8%, and 78.6%. The different
Fibonacci ratios are used to predict how likely it is for the stock to return to
that price by retracing its previous actions.
Fibonacci Series : Sequence of numbers in which 1 appears
twice as the first two numbers, and every subsequent number is the sum of two preceding
numbers: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 ... and so on. As it continues, the ratio between
any number and its successor approaches the ratio of golden section (1:1.618). Discovered
around 1202 by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci (circa 1175-1250), it displays
unique mathematical properties that make it useful in fields as diverse as astronomy
(distances between planets and the sun, and the shape of galactic spirals), botany
(growth patterns of plants and trees), and financial markets (price movements of
Fill Price : The price at which a buy or sell order
Fill : The process of completing a customer's order
to buy or sell a currency pair.
Financial Risk : The risk that a firm will be unable
to meet its financial obligations.
Fiscal Policy : Use of taxation as a tool in implementing
Fixed Exchange Rate : Official rate set by monetary
authorities for one or more currencies. In practice, even fixed exchange rates are
allowed to fluctuate between definite upper and lower bands, leading to intervention
by the central bank.
Fixing : A method of determining rates by normally
finding a rate that balances buyers to sellers. Such a process occurs either once
or twice daily at defined times. Used by some currencies particularly for establishing
tourist rates . The system is also used in the London Bullion market.
Flat/Square : Where a client has not traded in that
currency or where an earlier deal is reversed thereby creating a neutral (flat)
position. example : you bought $500,000 then sold $500,000 = FLAT .
Flat : Term describing a trading book with no market
Float : (1) see Floating exchange rate. (2) Cash
in hand or in the course of being transferred between banks (3) Federal Reserve
Float arises from the system where cheques sent to the Federal Reserve Banks are
credited sometimes in advance of the depositing bank loosening the reserve.
Floating Exchange Rate : When the value of a currency
is decided by the market forces dictating the demand and supply of that particular
Floor : (1) An agreement with a counterparty
that sets a lower limit to interest rates for the floor buyer for a stated time.
(2) A term for an exchanges trading area (cf. screen based trading), normally the
trading area is referred to as a pit in the commodities and futures markets.
FOMC : Federal Open Market Committee, the committee
that sets money supply targets in the US which tend to be implemented through Fed
Fund interest rates etc.
Foreign Exchange : The purchase or sale of a currency
against sale or purchase of another.
Foreign Exchange Swaps :
(FX Swaps) involve the exchange of two currencies on a specific date at a rate agreed
to at the time of the conclusion of the contract, and a reverse exchange of the
same two currencies at a date further in the future at a rate agreed to at the time
of the contract. For measurement purposes, only the long leg of the swap is reported
so that each transaction is recorded only once.
Foreign Position : It means a position under which
one party agrees to purchase from or sell to the other party an agreed amount of
Forex : An abbreviation of foreign exchange
Forex Deal : The purchase or sale of a currency against
sale or purchase of another currency. The maximum time for a deal is defined when
the deal opens, the deal can be closed at any moment until the expiry date and time.
A deal cannot be closed on its first 3 minutes, due to technical reasons.
Forward Contract : Sometimes used as synonym for "forward
deal" or "future". More specifically for arrangements with the same effect as a
forward deal between a bank and a customer.
Forward Cover Taking : Forward contracts to protect
against movements in the exchange rate.
Forward Deal : A deal with a value date greater than
the spot value date.
Forward Points : The interest rate differential between
two currencies expressed in exchange rate points. The forward points are added to
or subtracted from the spot rate to give the forward or outright rate depending
on whether the currency is at a forward premium or discount.
Forward Price : (See forward rates).
Forward Rate : The rate at which a foreign exchange
contract is struck today for settlement at a specified future date which is decided
at the time of entering into the contract. The decision to subtract or add points
is determined by the differential between the deposit rates for both currencies
concerned in the transaction. The base currency with the higher interest rate is
said to be at a discount to the lower interest rate quoted currency in the forward
market. Therefore the forward points are subtracted from the spot rate. Similarly,
the lower interest rate base currency is said to be at a premium, and the forward
points are added to the spot rate to obtain the forward rate.
Forward Rates : The net price resulting from calculating
the forward points and subtracting them from the existing spot rate. This is the
rate at which a currency can be purchased or sold for delivery in the future.
Forward : A transaction that settles at a future date.
Free Reserves : Total reserves held by a bank less
the reserves required by the authority.
Front Office : The activities carried out by the dealer,
normal trading activities.
Fundamental Analysis : Analysis based on economic and
Fundamentals : The macro economic factors that are
accepted as forming the foundation for the relative value of a currency, these include
inflation, growth, trade balance, government deficit, and interest rates.
Funds : A term for USD/CAD/Fungibles Instruments that
are equivalent, substitutable and interchangeable in law. May apply to certain exchange
traded currency contracts offered on a number of exchanges.
Merchant : An individual or organization which solicits or accepts orders
to buy or sell futures or options contracts and accepts money or other assets from
customers in connection with such orders. Must be registered with the Commodity
Futures Trading Commission.
Futures Contract : A contract traded on a futures exchange
which requires the delivery of a specified quality and quantity of a commodity,
currency or financial instruments a specified future month, if not liquidated before
the contract matures.
Futures Exchange-Traded Contracts : They are firm agreements
to deliver (or take delivery of) a standardized amount of something on a certain
date at a predetermined price. Futures exist in currencies, money market deposits,
bonds, shares and commodities. They are traded on an exchange with the clearing
corporation guaranteeing the contract and moreover the trade is done on a mark to
FX : Foreign Exchange.
G10 : G7 plus Belgium, Netherlands and Sweden, a group
associated with IMF discussions. Switzerland is sometimes peripherally involved.
G5 : The five leading industrial countries - US, Germany,
Japan, France, UK.
G7 : The seven leading industrial countries, being
US , Germany, Japan, France, UK, Canada, Italy.
Gamma : The rate at which a delta changes over time
or for one unit change in the price of the underlying asset.
GNP Deflator : Removes inflation from the GNP figure.
Usually expressed as a percentage and based on an index figure.
GNP Gap : The difference between the actual real GNP
and the potential real GNP. If the gap is negative an economy is overheated.
Gold Standard : The original system for supporting
the value of currency issued. This system was in vogue before 1973 when the fixed
exchange rates were prevalent.
Good Till Cancelled Order (GTC) : A buy or sell order
which remains open until it is filled or canceled.
Gross Domestic Product : Total value of a country's
output, income or expenditure produced within the country's physical borders.
Gross National Product : Gross domestic product plus
" factor income from abroad" - income earned from investment or work abroad.
GTC "Good Till Cancelled" : An order left with a dealer
to buy or sell at a fixed price. The order remains in place until it is cancelled
by the client.
Hard Currency : A currency whose value is expected
to remain stable or increase in terms of other currencies.
Head and Shoulders : A pattern in price trends which
chartist consider indicates a price trend reversal. The price has risen for some
time, at the peak of the left shoulder, profit taking has caused the price to drop
or level. The price then rises steeply again to the head before more profit taking
causes the price to drop to around the same level as the shoulder. A further modest
rise or level will indicate that a further major fall is imminent. The breach of
the neckline is the indication to sell.
Hedge : The purchase or sale of options or futures
contracts as a temporary substitute for a transaction to be made at a later date.
Usually it involves opposite positions in the cash or futures or options market.
Hedging : A hedging transaction is one whose main aim
is to protect an asset or liability against a fluctuation in the foreign exchange
rate rather than profit from the exchange rate fluctuations.
Hyperinflation : Very high and self sustaining inflation
levels. One definition being the period while inflation exceeds 50% until it drops
below that level for 12 months.
ICCH : International Commodities Clearing House Limited,
a clearing house based in London operating world wide for many futures markets.
IFEMA : International Foreign Exchange Master Agreement.
IMF : International Monetary Fund, established in 1946
to provide international liquidity on a short and medium term and encourage liberalization
of exchange rates. The IMF helps its members to tide over the balance of payments
problems with supplying the necessary loans.
IMM : International Monetary Market part of the Chicago
Mercantile Exchange that lists a number of currency and financial futures.
Implied Rates : The interest rate determined by calculating
the difference between spot and forward rates.
Inconvertible Currency : Currency which cannot be exchanged
for other currencies either because it is forbidden by the foreign exchange regulations
or the currency witnesses extreme volatility that it is not perceived to be a safe
haven for parking the funds.
Indicative Quote : A market-maker's price which is
Indirect quote : Where the foreign currency is a variable
amount and the domestic currency is fixed at one unit.
Inflation : Continued rise in the general price level
in conjunction with a related drop in purchasing power. Sometimes referred to as
an excessive movement in such price levels.
Info Quote : Rate given for information purposes only.
Initial Margin : The deposit required by the Broker
before a client can trade/transact a deal to have some cushion in the event of default
by the party.
Initial Margin Requirement : The minimum portion of
a new security purchase that an investor must pay for in cash.
Interbank Rates : The forex rates large international
banks quote to other large international banks. Normally the public and other businesses
do not have access to these rates.
Interest Rate Risk : The potential for losses arising
from changes in interest rates
Interest Rate Swaps : An agreement to exchange interest
rate exposures from floating to fixed or vice versa. There is no swap of the principal.
The principal amount is notional as at the end of the tenure only cash flows related
with the interest payments (whether payment or reciept) are exchanged.
Intervention : Action by a central bank to effect the
value of its currency by entering the market.
In-the-Money : A call option is in-the-money if the
price of the underlying instrument is higher than the exercise/strike price. A put
option is in-the-money if the price of the underlying instrument is below the exercise/strike
Intra Day Limit : Limit set by bank management on the
size of each dealer's Intra Day Position.
Intra Day Position : Open positions run by a dealer
within the day. Usually squared by the close.
IOM : Index and Options Market part of the Chicago
IPI : Industrial Production Index. A coincident indicator
measuring physical output of manufacturing, mining and utilities.
ISDA (International Securities Dealers Association) :
Organization which foreign currency exchange banks have formed to regulate inter-bank
markets and exchanges.
J Curve : A term describing the expected effect of
a devaluation on a country's trade balance. It is anticipated that import bills
rise before export orders and receipts increase.
Jobber : A trader who trades for small, short-term
profits during the course of a trading session, rarely carrying a position overnight.
Kiwi : Slang for the New Zealand dollar.
Knock In : A process where a barrier option (European)
becomes active as the underlying spot price is in the money.
Knock Out : has a corresponding meaning although the
option may permanently cease to exist.
Lay Off : To carry out a transaction in the market
to offset a previous transaction and return to a square position.
LDC : Less developed countries, often used with respect
to secondary debt market.
Leading Indicators : Statistics that are considered
to precede changes in economic growth rates and total business activity, e.g. factory
Leads and Lags : The effect on foreign trade payments
of an anticipated move in the exchange rate, normally a devaluation. The importers
speeden up the payment for the imports and exporters delay recieving payment for
Liability : In terms of foreign exchange, the obligation
to deliver to a counterparty an amount of currency either in respect of a balance
sheet holding at a specified future date or in respect of an un-matured forward
or spot transaction.
LIBOR (London Inter Bank Offer Rate) : British Bankers'
Association average of interbank offered rates for dollar deposits in the London
market based on quotations at 16 major banks. Effective rate for contracts entered
into two days from date appearing.
LIFFE : London International Financial Futures Exchange.
Limit Order ? Reserved Day Trading Deal : An order
to perform a Day Trading deal at a rate pre-defined by the customer, when and if
such rate comes up in real market time. The Limit rate is superior to the existing
rate at the time of reservation. The reservation order lasts for a period defined
by the customer, and is associated by the necessary collaterals to facilitate the
potential Day Trading deal, when and if activated, under the pre-defined terms.
Limit Order : An order to execute a transaction at
a specified price (the limit) or better. A limit order to buy would be at the limit
or lower, and a limit order to sell would be at the limit or higher.
Limited Convertibility : When residents of a country
are prohibited from buying other currencies even though non-residents may be completely
free to buy or sell the national currency and the foreign institutional investors
also have the liberty to buy and sell shares on the stock exchange of that country.
Liquidation : Any transaction that offsets or closes
out a previously established position.
Liquidity : The ability of a market to accept large
transactions without having any major impact on the interest rates.
Liquidity : Refers to the relationship between transaction
size and price movements. For example, a market is "liquid" if large transactions
can occur with only minimal price changes.
Long : A market position where the Client has bought
a currency they previously did not own. For example : long Dollars.
Long Position : In foreign exchange, when a currency
pair is bought, it is understood that the primary currency in the pair is 'long',
and the secondary currency is 'short'.
M0 : Cash in circulation. Only used by the UK.
M1 : Cash in circulation plus demand deposits at commercial
banks. There are variations between the precise definitions used by national financial
M2 : Includes demand deposits, time deposits and money
market mutual funds excluding large CDs.
M3 : In the UK it is M1 plus public and private sector
time deposits and sight deposits held by the public sector.
M4 : In the US it is M2 plus negotiable CDs.
Maintenance : A set minimum margin that a customer
must maintain in his margin account
Make a Market : A dealer is said to make a market when
he quotes both the bid and offer prices at which he stands ready to buy and sell.
Managed Float : When the monetary authorities intervene
regularly in the market to stabilize the rates or to push the exchange rate in a
required direction. Also called a dirty float.
Margin : Collateral that the holder of a position in
securities, options, Forex or futures contracts, has to deposit to cover the credit
risk of his counterparty. Other definitions to MARGIN, used in other areas are :
(1) Difference between the buying and selling rates, also used to indicate the discount
or premium between spot or forward. (2) For options, the sum required as collateral
from the writer of an option. (3) For futures, a deposit made to the clearing house
on establishing a futures position account. (4) The percentage reserve required
by the US Federal Reserve to make an initial credit transaction.
Margin Account : An account that allows leverage buying
on credit and borrowing on currencies already in the account. Buying on credit and
borrowing are subject to standards established by the firm carrying the account.
Interest is charged on any borrowed funds and only for the period of time that the
loan is outstanding.
Margin Call : A demand for additional funds to cover
Margin : The amount of money needed to maintain a position.
Marginal Risk : The risk that a customer goes bankrupt
after entering into a forward contract. In such an event the issuer must close the
commitment running the risk of having to pay the marginal movement on the contract.
Mark-To-Market : The theoretical value of an open position
at the current market price. The profits and/or losses are tallied at the end of
the session according to the closing prices of the security and the account is "marked
to the market" daily. The party will be called upon to make good the losses if there
has been an adverse movement in the prices and it can book the profits in case there
has been a favorable movement in the prices.
Market Close : This refers to the time of day that
a market closes. In the 24 hour-a-day foreign exchange market, there is no official
market close. 5 :00 PM EST is often referred to and understood as the market
close because value dates for spot transactions change to the next new value date
at that time.
Market Maker : A person or firm that provides liquidity
making two-sided prices (bids and offers) in the market.
Market Order : A customer order for immediate execution
at the best price available when the order reaches the marketplace.
Market Rate : The current quote of a currency pair.
Market Risk : The risks that occur when general market
pressures cause the value of an investment to fluctuate.
Market Value : Market value of a forex position at
any time is the amount of the domestic currency that could be purchased at the then
market rate in exchange for the amount of foreign currency to be delivered under
the forex Contract.
Markets In Financial Instruments Directive
: Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MIFID)is a European Union
law that provides harmonized regulation for investment services across the 30 member
states of the European Economic Area (the 27 Member States of the European Union
plus Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein). The main objectives of the Directive
are to increase competition and consumer protection in investment services. As of
the effective date, 1 November 2007, it replaced the Investment Services Directive.
Maturity : Date for settlement of the transaction which
is decided at the time of entering into the contract.
Maturity : The date on which payment of a financial
obligation is due.
MIFID : See
Markets In Financial Instruments Directive.
MITI : Japanese Ministry of International Trade &
MM : Money Markets
Momentum : The tendency of a currency pair to continue
movement in a single direction.
Money Supply : The amount of money in the economy,
which can be measured in a number of ways.
Mutual fund : An open-end investment company. Equivalent
to unit trust.
Nickel : US term for five basis points.
Nostro Account : A foreign currency current account
maintained with another bank. The account is used to receive and pay currency assets
and liabilities denominated in the currency of the country in which the bank is
Not Held Basis Order : An order whereby the price may
trade through or better than the client's desired level, but the principal is not
held responsible if the order is not executed.
Note : A financial instrument consisting of a promise
to pay rather than an order to pay or a certificate of indebtedness.
OCO-One Cancels the Other Order : A combination of
two orders in which the execution of either one automatically cancels the other.
Offer : The rate at which a dealer is willing to sell
the base currency.
Official Settlements Account : A US balance of payments
measure based on movement of dollars in foreign official holdings and US reserves.
Also referred to as reserve transaction account.
Off-Shore : The operations of a financial institution
which although physically located in a country, has little connection with that
country's financial systems. In certain countries a bank is not permitted to do
business in the domestic market but only with other foreign banks. This is known
as an off shore banking unit.
Old Lady : Old lady of Threadneedle Street, a term
for the Bank of England.
One Cancels Other Order : Where the execution of one
order automatically cancels a previous order also referred to as OCO or 'One cancels
Open Market Operations : The central bank operations
in the markets to influence exchange and interest rates.
Open Order : Buy or sell order that remains in force
until executed or cancelled by the customer.
Open Position : Any deal which has not been settled
by physical payment or reversed by an equal and opposite deal for the same value
date. It can be termed as a high risk, high return proposition.
Option : A contract conferring the right but not the
obligation to buy (call) or to sell (put) a specified amount of an instrument at
a specified price within a predetermined time period.
Option Class : All options of the same type - calls
or puts -listed on the same underlying instrument.
Option Series : All options of the same class having
the same exercise/strike price and expiration date.
Order : A customer's instructions to buy or sell currencies.
Out-of-the-Money : A put option is out-of-the-money
if the exercise/strike price is below the price of the underlying instrument. A
call option is out-of-the money if the exercise/strike price is higher than the
price of the underlying instrument.
Outright Deal : A forward deal that is not part of
a swap operation.
Outright Forward : Foreign
exchange transaction involving the exchange of two currencies at a rate agreed to
on the date of the contract for value or delivery at some time in the future (more
than one business day for USD-CAD transactions or more than two business days for
all other transactions). This category also includes forward foreign exchange agreement
transactions (FXA), non-deliverable forwards, and other forward contracts for differences.
Outright Rate : The forward rate of a foreign exchange
deal based on spot price plus forward discount/premium.
Over The Counter (OTC) : A market conducted directly
between dealers and principals via a telephone and computer network rather than
a regulated exchange trading floor. These markets have not been very popular because
of the risks both the parties face in case the other party fails to honour the contract.
They were never part of the Stock Exchange since they were seen as "unofficial".
Overheated (Economy) : Is an economy on a high growth
rate trajectory placing pressure on the production capacity resulting in increased
inflationary pressures and higher interest rates.
Overbought Market : A market where prices have risen
above levels that can be supported by fundamental analysis. In technical analysis
overbought describes a situation in which the price has risen to such a degree
- usually on high volume - that an oscillator has reached its upper bound. This
is generally interpreted as a sign that that price is becoming overvalued and may
experience a pullpback.
Overnight Limit : Net long or short position in one
or more currencies that a dealer can carry over into the next dealing day. Passing
the book to other bank dealing rooms in the next trading time zone reduces the need
for dealers to maintain these unmonitored exposures.
Overnight Position : Trader's long or short position
in a currency at the end of a trading day.
Package Deal : When a number of exchange and /or deposit
orders have to be fulfilled simultaneously.
Par : (1) The nominal value of a security or instrument.
(2) The official value of a currency.
Parities : The value of one currency in terms of another.
Parity : (1) Foreign exchange dealer's slang for your
price is the correct market price. (2) Official rates in terms of SDR or other pegging
Permitted Currency : It means a foreign currency which
is freely convertible i.e a currency which is permitted by the rules and regulations
of the country concerned to be converted into major reserve currencies and for which
a fairly active and liquid market exists for dealing against the major currencies.
Pip : The smallest increment of change in a foreign
currency price, either up or down.
Point : (1) 100th part of a per cent, normally 10,000
of any spot rate. Movement of exchange rates are usually in terms of points. (2)
One percent on an interest rate e.g. from 8-9%. (3) Minimum fluctuation or smallest
increment of price movement.
Political Risk : The potential for losses arising from
a change in government policy or due to the risk of expropriation (nationalisation
by the government ).
Position : The netted total exposure in a given currency.
A position can be either flat or square (no exposure), long (more currency bought
than sold), or short ( more currency sold than bought).
PPI : Producer Price Indices. See wholesale price indices.
Premium : (1) The amount by which a forward rate exceeds
a spot rate. (2) The amount by which the market price of a bond exceeds its par
value. (3) Options, the price a put or call buyer must pay to a put or call seller
for an option contract. (4) The margin paid above the normal price level.
Price Transparency : The ability of all market participants
to "see" or deal at the same price.
Price : The price at which the underlying currency
can be bought or sold.
Prime Rate : (1) The rate from which lending rates
by banks are calculated in the US. (2) The rate of discount of prime bank bills
in the UK.
Principal : A dealer who buys or sells stock for his/her
Principal Value : The original amount invested by the
Profit Taking : The unwinding of a position to realize
Purchasing Power Parity : Model of exchange rate determination
stating that the price of a good in one country should equal the price of the same
good in another country after adjusting for the changes in the price due to the
change in exchange rate. Also known as the law of one price.
Put Call Parity : The equilibrium relationship between
premiums of call and put options of the same strike and expiry.
Put Option : A put option confers the right but not
the obligation to sell currencies, instruments or futures at the option exercise
price within a predetermined time period.
Quote : An indicative price. The price quoted for information
purposes but not to deal.
Quote : A simultaneous bid and offer in a currency
Range : The difference between the highest and lowest
price of a future recorded during a given trading session.
Rate : The price of one currency in terms of another.
It has the same meaning as the term parities.
Recession : A decline in business activity. Often defined
as two consecutive quarters with a real fall in GNP.
Reserve Currency : A currency held by a central bank
on a permanent basis as a store of international liquidity, these are normally Dollar,
Deutschemark, and Sterling..
Reserves : Funds held against future contingencies,
normally a combination of convertible foreign currency, gold, and SDRs. Official
reserves are to ensure that a government can meet near term obligations. They are
an asset in the balance of payments.
Resistance : A price level at which the selling is
expected to take place.
Retail Price Index : Measurement of the monthly change
in the average level of prices at retail, normally of a defined group of goods.
Return On Revenue - ROR : A measure of profitability,
calculated as net income divided by revenue.
Reuter Dealing : A system for screen based trading
that has been in operation since the early 1980s. It now has a matching optional
enhancement known as Dealing 2000-2.
Revaluation : Increase in the exchange rate of a currency
as a result of official action.
Revaluation : Daily calculation of potential profits
or losses on open positions based on the difference between the settlement price
of the previous trading day and the current trading day.
Risk Averse : A description
of an investor who, when faced with two investments with a similar expected return
(but different risks), will prefer the one with the lower risk. A risk-averse investor
dislikes risk, and therefore will stay away from adding high-risk stocks, trades,
or investments to their portfolio or position and in turn will often lose out on
higher rates of return. Investors looking for safer investments will generally
stick to index funds and government bonds, which generally have lower returns.
Risk (Foreign Exchange Risk) : The risk that the exchange
rate on a foreign currency will move against the position held by an investor such
that the value of the investment is reduced.
Risk management : The identification and acceptance
or offsetting of the risks threatening the profitability or existence of an organisation.
With respect to foreign exchange involves, among others, consideration of market,
sovereign, country, transfer, delivery, credit, and counterparty risk.
Risk Premium : Additional sum payable or return to
compensate a party for adopting a particular risk.
Risks : There are risks associated with any market.
It means variance of the returns and the possibility that the actual return might
not be in line with the expected returns. The risks associated with trading foreign
currencies are : market, exchange, Interest rate, yield curve, volatility, liquidity,
forced sale, counter party, credit, and country risk.
Rolling over : The substituting of a far option for
a near option of the same underlying stock at the same strike/exercise price.
Rollover : Where the settlement of a deal is carried
forward to another value date based on the interest rate differential of the two
currencies example : next day
Safe Haven Currency :
A major traded currency, such as the U.S. dollar or Swiss franc, used by investors
and fund managers seeking a safe haven for their funds in times of market turmoil.
Sell Limit Order : An order to execute a transaction
only at a specified price (the limit) or higher.
Sell Side : The retail brokers and research departments
that sell securities and make recommendations for brokerage firms' customers.
Selling Rate : Rate at which a bank is willing to sell
Selling Short : A situation where a currency has been
sold with the intent of buying back the position at a lower price to make a profit.
Settlement : Actual physical exchange of one currency
Settlement Date : It means the business day specified
for delivery of the currencies bought and sold under a forex contract.
Short : A market position where the client has sold
a currency he does not already own. Usually expressed in base currency terms.
Short position : In foreign exchange, when a currency
pair is sold, the position is said to be short. It is understood that the primary
currency in the pair is 'short', and the secondary currency is 'long'.
Short Squeeze : The pressure on short sellers to cover
their positions as a result of sharp price increases.
SITC : Standard International Trade Classification.
A system for reporting trade statistics in a common manner.
SOFFEX : Swiss Options and Financial Futures Exchange,
a fully automated and integrated trading and clearing system.
Soft Market : More potential sellers than buyers, which
creates an environment where rapid price falls are likely.
SPOT : (1) The most common
foreign exchange transaction. (2) Spot Transactions are single outright transactions
that involve the exchange of two currencies at a rate agreed to on the date of the
contract for value or delivery within two business days, including U.S. dollar-Canadian
dollar (USD-CAD) transactions delivered within one day).
Spot Market : Market where people buy and sell actual
financial instruments (currencies) for two-day delivery.
Spot Next : The overnight swap from the spot date to
the next business day.
Spot Price/Rate : The price at which the currency is
currently trading in the spot market.
Spot Price : The current market price of a currency
that normally settles in 2 business days (1 day for Dollar/Canada).
Spread : (1) The difference between the bid and ask
price of a currency. (2) The difference between the price of two related futures
contracts. (3) For options, transactions involving two or more option series on
the same underlying currency.
Spread : This point or pip difference between the bid
and ask price of a currency pair.
Stable Market : An active market which can absorb large
sale or purchases of currency without having any major impact on the interest rates.
Stagflation : Recession or low growth in conjunction
with high inflation rates.
Standard and Poors (S&P) : A US firm engaged in
assessing the financial health of borrowers. The firm also has generated certain
stock indices i.e. S&P 500.
Sterilization : Central Bank activity in the domestic
money market to reduce the impact on money supply of its intervention activities
in the forex market.
Sterling : British pound, otherwise known as cable.
Sterling : Another term for the British currency, 'The
Stop Loss Order : Order given to ensure that, should
a currency weaken by a certain percentage, a short position will be covered even
though this involves taking a loss. Realize profit orders are less common.
Stop Order (or stop) : An order to buy or to sell a
currency when the currency's price reaches or passes a specified level.
Stop Out Price : US term for the lowest accepted price
for Treasury Bills at auction.
Straddle : The simultaneous purchase/sale of both call
and put options for the same share, exercise/strike price and expiry date.
Strike Price : Also called exercise price. The price
at which an option holder can buy or sell the underlying instrument.
Strip : A combination of two puts and one call.
Structural Unemployment : Unemployment levels inherent
in an economic structure.
Support Levels : A price level at which the buying
is expected to take place.
Swap : The simultaneous purchase and sale of the same
amount of a given currency for two different dates, against the sale and purchase
of another. A swap can be a swap against a forward. In essence, swapping is somewhat
similar to borrowing one currency and lending another for the same period. However,
any rate of return or cost of funds is expressed in the price differential between
the two sides of the transaction.
Swift : Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial
Telecommunication is a clearing system for international trading.
Swissy : Market slang for Swiss Franc.
Take Profit Order : A customer's instructions to buy
or sell a currency pair which, when executed, will result in the reduction in the
size of the existing position and show a profit on said position.
T-Bill : Treasury Bill.
Technical Analysis : The study of the price that reflects
the supply and demand factors of a currency. Common methods are flags, trend-lines
spikes, bottoms, tops, pennants, patterns and gaps.
Technical Correction : An adjustment to price not based
on market sentiment but technical factors such as volume and charting.
Terms of Trade : The ratio between export and import
Theta : A measure of the sensitivity of the price of
an option to a change in its time to expiry.
Thin Market : A market in which trading volume is low
and in which consequently bid and ask quotes are wide and the liquidity of the instrument
traded is low.
TIBOR : Tokyo Inter-bank Offered Rate.
Tick : A minimum change in price, up or down.
TIFFE : Tokio International Financial Futures Exchange.
Tomorrow Next (Tom/Next), (T/N), T/N Roll : The process
of moving the settlement value date on an open position forward from one business
day after the trade date (tomorrow), to the next valid value date (next), the spot
Trade Date : The date on which a trade occurs.
Tranche : A portion of a deal or structured financing,
specifically used for borrowings from the IMF.
Transaction : The buying or selling of securities resulting
from the execution of an order.
Transaction Date : The date on which a trade occurs.
Transaction Exposure : Potential profit and loss generated
by current foreign exchange transactions
Turnover : The total volume of all executed transactions
in a given time period.
Two-Way Price : A quote in the foreign exchange market
that indicates a bid and an offer.
Under-Valuation : An exchange rate is normally considered
to be undervalued when it is below its purchasing power parity.
Value Date : For exchange contracts it is the day on
which the two contracting parties exchange the currencies which are being bought
or sold. For a spot transaction it is two business banking days forward in the country
of the bank providing quotations which determine the spot value date.
Value Spot : Normally settlement is for two working
days from the date the contract is entered into. Value Today Transaction is executed
for same day settlement; sometimes also referred to as "cash transaction".
Vanilla : A simple option whose terms and conditions
do not include any provisions other than exercise style, expiry and strike. To compare
with exotic options which have additional terms.
Variation Margin : Funds required to be deposited by
a client when a price movement has caused funds to fall below the stipulated percentage
of the value of the contract.
Vega : Expresses the price change of an option for
a one per cent change in the implied volatility.
Velocity of Money : The speed with which money circulates
or turnover in the economy. It is calculated as the annual national income :
average money stock in the period.
Volatility (VOL) : Statistical measure of the change
in price of a financial currency pair over a given time period.
Vostro Account : A local currency account maintained
with a bank by another bank. The term is normally applied to the counterparty's
account from which funds may be paid into or withdrawn, as a result of a transaction.
Wholesale Money : Money borrowed in large amounts from
banks and institutions rather than from small investors.
Wholesale Price Index : It measures changes in prices
in the manufacturing and distribution sector of the economy and tends to lead the
consumer price index by 60 to 90 days. The index is often quoted separately for
food and industrial products.
Working day : A day on which the banks in a currency's
principal financial centre are open for business. For FX transactions, a working
day only occurs if the bank in both (all relevant currency centers in the case of
a cross) are open.
World Bank : A bank made up of members of the IMF whose
aim is to assist in the development of member states by making loans where private
capital is not available.
Writer : The seller of a position. Also known as the
grantor of the trade. "Writing a Currency" is to sell it.
Yard : A slang word used in the currency industry meaning
Yield Curve : The graph showing changes in yield on
instruments depending on time to maturity. A system originally developed in the
bond markets is now broadly applied to various financial futures. A positive sloping
curve has lower interest rates at the shorter maturities and higher at the longer
maturities. A negative sloping curve has higher interest rates at the shorter maturities.
Z-Certificate : Certificate issued by the Bank of England
to "discount houses" in lieu of stock certificates to facilitate their dealing in
the short dated gilt edge securities.
Zero Coupon Bond : A bond that pays no interest. The
bond is initially offered at a discount to its redemption value.